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Scientists find evidence for food insecurity driving international conflict two thousand years ago
Jennifer Lopez, 4 products to get her perfect skin
Rooftop solar cells can be a boon for water conservation too
Women facing food insecurity could be at high risk for addiction to highly processed food
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                    [title] => Scientists find evidence for food insecurity driving international conflict two thousand years ago
                    [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/healthandscience/scientists-find-evidence-for-food-insecurity-driving-international-conflict-two-thousand-years-ago/
                    [dc] => Array
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                            [creator] => Tony Grantly
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                    [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 21:36:52 +0000
                    [category] => Health And ScienceConflictdrivingEvidenceFoodinsecurityInternationalscientists
                    [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47331
                    [description] => Journal Reference: Joan Campmany Jiménez, Iza Romanowska, Rubina Raja, Eivind H. Seland. Food security in Roman Palmyra (Syria) in light of paleoclimatological evidence and its historical implications. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (9): e0273241 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273241 Deteriorating climate and a growing population Now, scientists from Aarhus University and the University of Bergen are questioning the historical ... Read more
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Journal Reference:

  1. Joan Campmany Jiménez, Iza Romanowska, Rubina Raja, Eivind H. Seland. Food security in Roman Palmyra (Syria) in light of paleoclimatological evidence and its historical implications. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (9): e0273241 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273241

Deteriorating climate and a growing population

Now, scientists from Aarhus University and the University of Bergen are questioning the historical narrative about the final blow given to the city solely by the Roman invasion in 272/273 CE.

?We can now see that food security, always the main concern for a large urban centre situated in a highly inhospitable environment, was gradually reduced with a deteriorating climate and a growing population of the city. The timing of this nexus matches exactly the time of the reign of Zenobia and of that of her husband, Odaenathus, marked by social shifts, militarisation, the rapid conquest of neighbouring lands and the dramatic conflict that led to the demise of Palmyra,? says Dr Iza Romanowska, one of the authors behind the new study.

Interdisciplinary team effort unlocks complex data

The interdisciplinary research team reconstructed the hinterland of ancient Palmyra ? the area around the city that could provide it with basic foodstuff ? and used modern land-use models developed for dry and semi-dry environments to estimate the maximum productivity of the land. They then ran the model against existing climate records to determine how much food could be produced at different points in Palmyra?s history and with what reliability. In order to do this, archaeologists, ancient historians and complexity scientists joined forces to unleash the knowledge locked in the otherwise impenetrable data. The results showed that a long-term climatic shift towards drier and hotter climate caused a gradual decrease in agricultural yields, reaching levels barely sufficient to feed the budding population of Palmyra around the middle of the third century.

Innovative new approach ? new angles

Co-author Professor Rubina Raja, Aarhus University?s chair of classical archaeology and director of the DNRF-funded Centre of Excellence for Urban Network Evolutions (UrbNet) heads the Carlsberg Foundation-funded project ?Circular Economy and Urban Sustainability in Antiquity? from which the study stems. Rubina Raja adds:

?While there have been numerous studies looking at Palmyra?s history, social composition and infrastructure, it is thanks to the innovative new approach that we are able to look at the history of this important city and the whole region from an entirely new angle. By combining computational modelling with a wide range of archaeological data processed by humanities researchers with deep historical knowledge we are able to consider the circular economy and its long-term sustainability and resilience.?

Learning from the past is key

The study sets up a research pipeline, including computer scripts and detailed instructions, that will enable other researchers to analyse other ancient cities and determine how often and under what circumstances food security played a key role in shaping historical trajectories of past peoples.

?This kind of study showcases that many challenges which our societies face today had equivalents in the past. Contrary to the often-repeated trope that humans never learn from history, we can and we should learn lessons from the past,? says professor in Global History at the University of Bergen and one of the study?s authors, Eivind Heldaas Seland.

We wish to give thanks to the writer of this article for this awesome content

Scientists find evidence for food insecurity driving international conflict two thousand years ago

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Joan Campmany Jiménez, Iza Romanowska, Rubina Raja, Eivind H. Seland. Food security in Roman Palmyra (Syria) in light of paleoclimatological evidence and its historical implications. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (9): e0273241 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273241 Deteriorating climate and a growing population Now, scientists from Aarhus University and the University of Bergen are questioning the historical ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Joan Campmany Jiménez, Iza Romanowska, Rubina Raja, Eivind H. Seland. Food security in Roman Palmyra (Syria) in light of paleoclimatological evidence and its historical implications. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (9): e0273241 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273241

Deteriorating climate and a growing population

Now, scientists from Aarhus University and the University of Bergen are questioning the historical narrative about the final blow given to the city solely by the Roman invasion in 272/273 CE.

?We can now see that food security, always the main concern for a large urban centre situated in a highly inhospitable environment, was gradually reduced with a deteriorating climate and a growing population of the city. The timing of this nexus matches exactly the time of the reign of Zenobia and of that of her husband, Odaenathus, marked by social shifts, militarisation, the rapid conquest of neighbouring lands and the dramatic conflict that led to the demise of Palmyra,? says Dr Iza Romanowska, one of the authors behind the new study.

Interdisciplinary team effort unlocks complex data

The interdisciplinary research team reconstructed the hinterland of ancient Palmyra ? the area around the city that could provide it with basic foodstuff ? and used modern land-use models developed for dry and semi-dry environments to estimate the maximum productivity of the land. They then ran the model against existing climate records to determine how much food could be produced at different points in Palmyra?s history and with what reliability. In order to do this, archaeologists, ancient historians and complexity scientists joined forces to unleash the knowledge locked in the otherwise impenetrable data. The results showed that a long-term climatic shift towards drier and hotter climate caused a gradual decrease in agricultural yields, reaching levels barely sufficient to feed the budding population of Palmyra around the middle of the third century.

Innovative new approach ? new angles

Co-author Professor Rubina Raja, Aarhus University?s chair of classical archaeology and director of the DNRF-funded Centre of Excellence for Urban Network Evolutions (UrbNet) heads the Carlsberg Foundation-funded project ?Circular Economy and Urban Sustainability in Antiquity? from which the study stems. Rubina Raja adds:

?While there have been numerous studies looking at Palmyra?s history, social composition and infrastructure, it is thanks to the innovative new approach that we are able to look at the history of this important city and the whole region from an entirely new angle. By combining computational modelling with a wide range of archaeological data processed by humanities researchers with deep historical knowledge we are able to consider the circular economy and its long-term sustainability and resilience.?

Learning from the past is key

The study sets up a research pipeline, including computer scripts and detailed instructions, that will enable other researchers to analyse other ancient cities and determine how often and under what circumstances food security played a key role in shaping historical trajectories of past peoples.

?This kind of study showcases that many challenges which our societies face today had equivalents in the past. Contrary to the often-repeated trope that humans never learn from history, we can and we should learn lessons from the past,? says professor in Global History at the University of Bergen and one of the study?s authors, Eivind Heldaas Seland.

We wish to give thanks to the writer of this article for this awesome content

Scientists find evidence for food insecurity driving international conflict two thousand years ago

[date_timestamp] => 1664141812 ) [1] => Array ( [title] => Jennifer Lopez, 4 products to get her perfect skin [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/celebrity/jennifer-lopez-4-products-to-get-her-perfect-skin/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Sally Scully ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 21:15:38 +0000 [category] => CelebrityJenniferLopezperfectproductsskin [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47325 [description] => Jennifer Lopez, 4 products to get her perfect skin Today we will let you know the 4 products to get the perfect skin of the famous singer Jennifer Lopez in just 5 minutes, so keep reading to follow it step by step. The truth is that Jennifer Lopez always surprises us with her skin radiantthere ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Today we will let you know the 4 products to get the perfect skin of the famous singer Jennifer Lopez in just 5 minutes, so keep reading to follow it step by step.

The truth is that Jennifer Lopez always surprises us with her skin radiantthere is no doubt that he takes great care of himself and always uses some basics to have a good face always.

That is why we are looking for your beauty essentials to achieve that unbeatable look of your day to day.

It may interest you: Jennifer Lopez, how much will Ben Affleck pay if he is unfaithful?

And it is not necessary to have a bag full of products to get a skin brightdizzying eyelashes, tanned skin and juicy lips in just five minutes.

However, if we take a look at the good face that the diva from the bronx always wears, we wonder what her tricks are to always show off impeccable skin and always natural makeup.

According to the singer, no aesthetic retouching has ever been done, so the wonderful skin she has seems even more incredible to us.

Although it is true, she takes great care of her diet and exercises regularly, and uses cosmetics from her skin care line JLo Beauty.

On this occasion we have looked for some of the makeup basics that the artist would use to show off such a radiant face in record time.

1

Re-Boost Tinted Healthy Glow Gel-Cream

My Clarins Re-Boost Healthy Glow Tinted is a dose of energy that hydrates and boosts the skin throughout the day while giving it a glowing effect.

2

Better Than Sex Mascara

The mascara separates, coats and curls each lash with an intensely black formula for a voluptuous look.

3

Terracotta Light Bronzing Powder

They are light powders that offer a healthy look, combining golden tones with a vitamin cocktail of pink and orange tones.

Its formula includes active ingredients that revitalize your skin and protect it from free radicals and pollution.

In addition, it preserves its natural hydration for radiant skin much longer.

4

Gloss Bomb Universal Lip Luminizer

The FENTY BEAUTY Gloss Bomb Universal Lip Luminizer offers an explosive shine.

Now available in three universal shades selected by Rihanna herself to add the finishing touch to any look.

Follow us on


Animation and Visual Effects Engineer, graduated in February 2020. She began her writing career at the Show News portal in February 2020, working on writing notes, content on social networks such as Twitter and Facebook and updating content to always keep informed to the public. She has specialization with notes on things related to music, premieres, movies, and diverse content. In the time that she has worked at Show News, she has completed SEO Course training in June 2020, Intellectual Property Course July 2020, Verification Tools Course July 2020, Google Trends Course April 2020 and Google Earth Course March 2020.

see more

We wish to thank the writer of this write-up for this incredible content

Jennifer Lopez, 4 products to get her perfect skin

) [summary] => Jennifer Lopez, 4 products to get her perfect skin Today we will let you know the 4 products to get the perfect skin of the famous singer Jennifer Lopez in just 5 minutes, so keep reading to follow it step by step. The truth is that Jennifer Lopez always surprises us with her skin radiantthere ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Today we will let you know the 4 products to get the perfect skin of the famous singer Jennifer Lopez in just 5 minutes, so keep reading to follow it step by step.

The truth is that Jennifer Lopez always surprises us with her skin radiantthere is no doubt that he takes great care of himself and always uses some basics to have a good face always.

That is why we are looking for your beauty essentials to achieve that unbeatable look of your day to day.

It may interest you: Jennifer Lopez, how much will Ben Affleck pay if he is unfaithful?

And it is not necessary to have a bag full of products to get a skin brightdizzying eyelashes, tanned skin and juicy lips in just five minutes.

However, if we take a look at the good face that the diva from the bronx always wears, we wonder what her tricks are to always show off impeccable skin and always natural makeup.

According to the singer, no aesthetic retouching has ever been done, so the wonderful skin she has seems even more incredible to us.

Although it is true, she takes great care of her diet and exercises regularly, and uses cosmetics from her skin care line JLo Beauty.

On this occasion we have looked for some of the makeup basics that the artist would use to show off such a radiant face in record time.

1

Re-Boost Tinted Healthy Glow Gel-Cream

My Clarins Re-Boost Healthy Glow Tinted is a dose of energy that hydrates and boosts the skin throughout the day while giving it a glowing effect.

2

Better Than Sex Mascara

The mascara separates, coats and curls each lash with an intensely black formula for a voluptuous look.

3

Terracotta Light Bronzing Powder

They are light powders that offer a healthy look, combining golden tones with a vitamin cocktail of pink and orange tones.

Its formula includes active ingredients that revitalize your skin and protect it from free radicals and pollution.

In addition, it preserves its natural hydration for radiant skin much longer.

4

Gloss Bomb Universal Lip Luminizer

The FENTY BEAUTY Gloss Bomb Universal Lip Luminizer offers an explosive shine.

Now available in three universal shades selected by Rihanna herself to add the finishing touch to any look.

Follow us on


Animation and Visual Effects Engineer, graduated in February 2020. She began her writing career at the Show News portal in February 2020, working on writing notes, content on social networks such as Twitter and Facebook and updating content to always keep informed to the public. She has specialization with notes on things related to music, premieres, movies, and diverse content. In the time that she has worked at Show News, she has completed SEO Course training in June 2020, Intellectual Property Course July 2020, Verification Tools Course July 2020, Google Trends Course April 2020 and Google Earth Course March 2020.

see more

We wish to thank the writer of this write-up for this incredible content

Jennifer Lopez, 4 products to get her perfect skin

[date_timestamp] => 1664140538 ) [2] => Array ( [title] => Rooftop solar cells can be a boon for water conservation too [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/healthandscience/rooftop-solar-cells-can-be-a-boon-for-water-conservation-too/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 20:19:44 +0000 [category] => Health And ScienceBooncellsconservationRooftopsolarWater [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47320 [description] => Journal Reference: Avner Vengosh, Erika Weinthal. The water consumption reductions from home solar installation in the United States. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 854: 158738 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158738 A given household may save an average 16,200 gallons of water per year by installing rooftop solar, they found. In some states, like California, this saving can ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Avner Vengosh, Erika Weinthal. The water consumption reductions from home solar installation in the United States. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 854: 158738 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158738

A given household may save an average 16,200 gallons of water per year by installing rooftop solar, they found. In some states, like California, this saving can increase to 53,000 gallons, which is equivalent to 60 percent of the average household water use in the U.S.

You won?t see the savings on your home water bill, but they?re still important.

That?s because energy use is tightly bound to water consumption. Electrical energy production in the U.S. consumes nearly as much water as the agricultural sector. But that figure doesn?t include the additional water used produce fossil fuels in the first place, nor to manage coal ash waste.

?To generate electricity for the grid we need to mine and burn coal, frack and pump natural gas, and cool nuclear plants, all involving high volumes of water that is continuously lost,? said Avner Vengosh, a Duke University distinguished professor of environmental quality in the Nicholas School of the Environment and co-author of a new paper that appears Sept. 19 in Science of the Total Environment.

?However, with the solar cell, it?s a one-time consumption of much a lower volume of water for manufacturing,? Vengosh said. ?And then, once it?s installed, there?s no longer any water use coming from that for the next 25 years of expected use.?

Currently, more than 70 percent of the world?s solar panels are being made in China, so the water consumption to generate solar energy occurs overseas.

Co-author Erika Weinthal, a professor of environmental policy in the Nicholas School, said that to understand the broader water impacts from solar panel production, it is vital to look at the entire supply chain across the world.

?From a contamination point of view, solar cells have huge potential for environmental damage,? Vengosh said. ?It contains heavy metals, some of which are very toxic, and therefore they could have impact on the immediate environment where the manufacturing occurs.?

But after that, the water consumption of solar is zero.

Previous studies have attempted to evaluate the amount of water use for different stages of energy production, typically expressed as the volume of water to given energy such as liter or gallon per gigajoule. In the new study, the authors combined energy sources that are used to generate electricity for the residential sector across the contiguous U.S. and translated that to the volume of water consumption in each state.

After evaluating the statewide water use for the residential sector, the new study calculated the virtual water use of individual homes in 48 states. These calculations estimate that the total amount of water consumed for powering the residential sector across the U.S. is 2.6 trillion gallons.

Converting to solar in homes reduces the use of the grid electricity and therefore also the volume of water. In some states, like in the southwestern U.S., the individual household water saving can reach up to 1000 percent upon installing rooftop solar.

These water use calculations are a follow-up to a recent book Vengosh and Weinthal published earlier this year on intersection of energy and water quality that provides a detailed baseline for the water consumption of various fossil fuel sources.

During the pandemic shutdown, the authors had decided to add solar panels to the home they share. While in the beginning the major motivation was to save carbon emission, after a while they realized it can save also water.

?So this article is really a product of wanting to decarbonize our own personal life,? Weinthal said. ?I teach global environmental politics, and I teach about the Paris agreement, and I always try to get the students to connect what?s happening at the interstate level to what we can do with our own forms of agency.?

Today, photovoltaic solar cells account for about 1.5 percent of the nation?s electrical supply. That represents a saving of 99 billion gallons of water a year, the authors estimate, which is equivalent to about four days of California?s total water usage. But as the solar percentage grows, so too will the savings.

Their paper also compares water consumption for energy by state, since each state uses different energy sources for electricity generation and has different use patterns and number of homes.

The New England states, for example, show huge wins for converting to solar because they don?t use much electricity for air conditioning and they tend to heat their homes with oil, not electricity, Vengosh said. Arizona and California, states which have water shortages and a lot of sunny days, would also be big winners.

In their book, Weinthal and Vengosh showed that water use is only part of the puzzle. Contamination of water resources because of coal mining, fracking, and coal ash disposal further reduce the water availability, and therefore, the water footprint from fossil fuels extraction is far larger than we think.

?We also tried to quantify water quality effects, like how much water is being contaminated from an event such as oil spill or chronic disposal of coal ash to the water resources,? Vengosh said. ?So if you know the volume of the oil spill, you can translate it to the volume of water that being contaminated and lost.?

What?s important is to assess the total cost of any technology, Weinthal said. ?We need to be moving towards renewables, solar and wind, but in doing so, we have to recognize that for any form of energy infrastructure, even if it is renewables, there may be some costs when it comes to water. One has to think about the water footprint for any form of energy production,? she said.

The researchers have already turned their attention to the water use and environmental effects of lithium mining, a metal that is key to next-generation batteries.

We would like to give thanks to the author of this article for this incredible web content

Rooftop solar cells can be a boon for water conservation too

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Avner Vengosh, Erika Weinthal. The water consumption reductions from home solar installation in the United States. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 854: 158738 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158738 A given household may save an average 16,200 gallons of water per year by installing rooftop solar, they found. In some states, like California, this saving can ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Avner Vengosh, Erika Weinthal. The water consumption reductions from home solar installation in the United States. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 854: 158738 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158738

A given household may save an average 16,200 gallons of water per year by installing rooftop solar, they found. In some states, like California, this saving can increase to 53,000 gallons, which is equivalent to 60 percent of the average household water use in the U.S.

You won?t see the savings on your home water bill, but they?re still important.

That?s because energy use is tightly bound to water consumption. Electrical energy production in the U.S. consumes nearly as much water as the agricultural sector. But that figure doesn?t include the additional water used produce fossil fuels in the first place, nor to manage coal ash waste.

?To generate electricity for the grid we need to mine and burn coal, frack and pump natural gas, and cool nuclear plants, all involving high volumes of water that is continuously lost,? said Avner Vengosh, a Duke University distinguished professor of environmental quality in the Nicholas School of the Environment and co-author of a new paper that appears Sept. 19 in Science of the Total Environment.

?However, with the solar cell, it?s a one-time consumption of much a lower volume of water for manufacturing,? Vengosh said. ?And then, once it?s installed, there?s no longer any water use coming from that for the next 25 years of expected use.?

Currently, more than 70 percent of the world?s solar panels are being made in China, so the water consumption to generate solar energy occurs overseas.

Co-author Erika Weinthal, a professor of environmental policy in the Nicholas School, said that to understand the broader water impacts from solar panel production, it is vital to look at the entire supply chain across the world.

?From a contamination point of view, solar cells have huge potential for environmental damage,? Vengosh said. ?It contains heavy metals, some of which are very toxic, and therefore they could have impact on the immediate environment where the manufacturing occurs.?

But after that, the water consumption of solar is zero.

Previous studies have attempted to evaluate the amount of water use for different stages of energy production, typically expressed as the volume of water to given energy such as liter or gallon per gigajoule. In the new study, the authors combined energy sources that are used to generate electricity for the residential sector across the contiguous U.S. and translated that to the volume of water consumption in each state.

After evaluating the statewide water use for the residential sector, the new study calculated the virtual water use of individual homes in 48 states. These calculations estimate that the total amount of water consumed for powering the residential sector across the U.S. is 2.6 trillion gallons.

Converting to solar in homes reduces the use of the grid electricity and therefore also the volume of water. In some states, like in the southwestern U.S., the individual household water saving can reach up to 1000 percent upon installing rooftop solar.

These water use calculations are a follow-up to a recent book Vengosh and Weinthal published earlier this year on intersection of energy and water quality that provides a detailed baseline for the water consumption of various fossil fuel sources.

During the pandemic shutdown, the authors had decided to add solar panels to the home they share. While in the beginning the major motivation was to save carbon emission, after a while they realized it can save also water.

?So this article is really a product of wanting to decarbonize our own personal life,? Weinthal said. ?I teach global environmental politics, and I teach about the Paris agreement, and I always try to get the students to connect what?s happening at the interstate level to what we can do with our own forms of agency.?

Today, photovoltaic solar cells account for about 1.5 percent of the nation?s electrical supply. That represents a saving of 99 billion gallons of water a year, the authors estimate, which is equivalent to about four days of California?s total water usage. But as the solar percentage grows, so too will the savings.

Their paper also compares water consumption for energy by state, since each state uses different energy sources for electricity generation and has different use patterns and number of homes.

The New England states, for example, show huge wins for converting to solar because they don?t use much electricity for air conditioning and they tend to heat their homes with oil, not electricity, Vengosh said. Arizona and California, states which have water shortages and a lot of sunny days, would also be big winners.

In their book, Weinthal and Vengosh showed that water use is only part of the puzzle. Contamination of water resources because of coal mining, fracking, and coal ash disposal further reduce the water availability, and therefore, the water footprint from fossil fuels extraction is far larger than we think.

?We also tried to quantify water quality effects, like how much water is being contaminated from an event such as oil spill or chronic disposal of coal ash to the water resources,? Vengosh said. ?So if you know the volume of the oil spill, you can translate it to the volume of water that being contaminated and lost.?

What?s important is to assess the total cost of any technology, Weinthal said. ?We need to be moving towards renewables, solar and wind, but in doing so, we have to recognize that for any form of energy infrastructure, even if it is renewables, there may be some costs when it comes to water. One has to think about the water footprint for any form of energy production,? she said.

The researchers have already turned their attention to the water use and environmental effects of lithium mining, a metal that is key to next-generation batteries.

We would like to give thanks to the author of this article for this incredible web content

Rooftop solar cells can be a boon for water conservation too

[date_timestamp] => 1664137184 ) [3] => Array ( [title] => Women facing food insecurity could be at high risk for addiction to highly processed food [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/healthandscience/women-facing-food-insecurity-could-be-at-high-risk-for-addiction-to-highly-processed-food/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 19:02:42 +0000 [category] => Health And ScienceaddictionfacingFoodhighlyinsecurityprocessedRiskwomen [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47315 [description] => Journal References: Lindsey Parnarouskis, Ashley N. Gearhardt, Ashley E. Mason, Nancy E. Adler, Barbara A. Laraia, Elissa S. Epel, Cindy W. Leung. Association of Food Insecurity and Food Addiction Symptoms: A Secondary Analysis of Two Samples of Low-Income Female Adults. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2022; 122 (10): 1885 DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2022.04.015 Kara ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal References:

  1. Lindsey Parnarouskis, Ashley N. Gearhardt, Ashley E. Mason, Nancy E. Adler, Barbara A. Laraia, Elissa S. Epel, Cindy W. Leung. Association of Food Insecurity and Food Addiction Symptoms: A Secondary Analysis of Two Samples of Low-Income Female Adults. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2022; 122 (10): 1885 DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2022.04.015
  2. Kara A. Christensen, Vivienne M. Hazzard, Brianne N. Richson, Kelsey E. Hagan. Measures Used with Populations with Food Insecurity: A Call for Increased Psychometric Validation. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2022; 122 (10): 1833 DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2022.05.017

Families experiencing food insecurity often have limited access to nutrient-rich foods like fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins, and greater access to less expensive, highly processed foods that are high in refined carbohydrates and fats. Research has found that highly processed foods can activate neural reward responses.

?An emerging line of research suggests that highly processed foods can trigger addictive processes that can lead to a compulsive pattern of overeating, with significant physical and mental health consequences. We know that individuals with food insecurity are more likely to live in an environment dominated by these highly processed foods and are more heavily targeted by the food industry,? explains first author Lindsey Parnarouskis, MS, doctoral candidate, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ?We hypothesized that individuals with food insecurity might be at greater risk for highly processed food addiction, but no one had previously investigated that.?

The study entailed a secondary analysis of data collected in two earlier studies. The Maternal Adiposity, Metabolism and Stress (MAMAS) study, conducted between August 2011 and June 2013, investigated an eight-week mindfulness-based intervention on gestational weight gain in low-income pregnant women in California. Participants were individuals with a body mass index in the overweight or obesity range, with a household income 500% less than US federal poverty guidelines. The Family Food Study (FFS), conducted between September 2018 and December 2019, studied low-income families in Michigan to assess associations between food insecurity, child weight gain and maternal weight gain. Participants were adult female-identified caregivers with children aged 8 through 10 years and a household income less than 200% of the US federal poverty guidelines.

Food security was measured using the US Household Food Security Module. It assesses the frequency of food insecurity experiences, such as worrying whether food would run out before more money arrives to buy more or cutting the size of meals or skipping meals because there was not enough money to buy food. Food addiction was measured by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), a tool that uses substance use disorder criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), adapted to the context of highly processed food. The MAMAS study used the original YFAS based on DSM-IV; the FFS study used a modified version based on DSM-5. Use of different versions of the YFAS as the outcome measure means that these results cannot necessarily be compared meaningfully across samples.

The researchers found no significant demographic differences between participants in food-secure and food-insecure households. Participants in food-insecure households in both samples reported significantly more food-addiction symptoms compared with participants in food-secure households. In MAMAS, pregnant individuals in food-insecure households had 21% more food addiction symptoms than individuals from food-secure households. In FFS, caregivers in food-insecure households had 56% more food addiction symptoms than caregivers in food-secure households.

?A key strength of the study is that we observed consistent associations across two distinct samples of low-income female adults with a high prevalence of food insecurity,? observes lead investigator Cindy W. Leung, ScD, MPH, Assistant Professor of Public Health Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. ?Despite data collected in different geographic regions, at different time periods, and different stages of parenthood or caregiving, the similarity of the associations suggests that this link between food insecurity and food addiction is concerning and deserves further continued investigation.?

Ms. Parnarouskis notes that since this is the first study to report this association, further research is needed to replicate these preliminary findings and test in other samples to generalize to the broader population, particularly because YFAS has not been psychometrically validated in either food-insecure or pregnant individuals. It is possible that endorsement of food addiction symptoms in food-insecure individuals reflects increased hedonic urges to eat any available foods, not just highly processed foods typically implicated in food addiction.

In an accompanying editorial, lead author Kara A. Christensen, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA, and coauthors point to the necessity of further qualitative and quantitative testing of measures assessing eating behaviors to validate their use in populations with food insecurity. Furthermore, they urge researchers to work together to conduct psychometric validations of eating behavior measures that incorporate the intersectional identities common to people with food insecurity.

Dr. Christensen and coauthors emphasize that ?considering the reasons that eating behavior measures such as the YFAS could conceivably capture different constructs in people with food insecurity, one must be cautious in interpreting findings using these measures to avoid overpathologizing or misclassifying behaviors. Thus, to advance understanding of maladaptive eating behaviors in these populations and enhance confidence in findings, more psychometric testing of measures is required in populations with food insecurity. Such studies will enhance the field?s ability to understand phenomena related to food insecurity and to draw conclusions that can positively impact public health, nutrition and dietetics, public policy and mental health treatment.?

?If families with low incomes have disproportionate access to food with addictive potential, this represents an important social justice issue, on a par with lack of access to clean water or adequate housing, which needs to be addressed through systemic policy and environmental changes,? Dr. Leung concludes. ?We need more research on what mechanisms are driving this association to inform policies to ensure that people have equitable access to nutritious food.?

We want to say thanks to the writer of this article for this incredible content

Women facing food insecurity could be at high risk for addiction to highly processed food

) [summary] => Journal References: Lindsey Parnarouskis, Ashley N. Gearhardt, Ashley E. Mason, Nancy E. Adler, Barbara A. Laraia, Elissa S. Epel, Cindy W. Leung. Association of Food Insecurity and Food Addiction Symptoms: A Secondary Analysis of Two Samples of Low-Income Female Adults. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2022; 122 (10): 1885 DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2022.04.015 Kara ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal References:

  1. Lindsey Parnarouskis, Ashley N. Gearhardt, Ashley E. Mason, Nancy E. Adler, Barbara A. Laraia, Elissa S. Epel, Cindy W. Leung. Association of Food Insecurity and Food Addiction Symptoms: A Secondary Analysis of Two Samples of Low-Income Female Adults. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2022; 122 (10): 1885 DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2022.04.015
  2. Kara A. Christensen, Vivienne M. Hazzard, Brianne N. Richson, Kelsey E. Hagan. Measures Used with Populations with Food Insecurity: A Call for Increased Psychometric Validation. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2022; 122 (10): 1833 DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2022.05.017

Families experiencing food insecurity often have limited access to nutrient-rich foods like fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins, and greater access to less expensive, highly processed foods that are high in refined carbohydrates and fats. Research has found that highly processed foods can activate neural reward responses.

?An emerging line of research suggests that highly processed foods can trigger addictive processes that can lead to a compulsive pattern of overeating, with significant physical and mental health consequences. We know that individuals with food insecurity are more likely to live in an environment dominated by these highly processed foods and are more heavily targeted by the food industry,? explains first author Lindsey Parnarouskis, MS, doctoral candidate, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ?We hypothesized that individuals with food insecurity might be at greater risk for highly processed food addiction, but no one had previously investigated that.?

The study entailed a secondary analysis of data collected in two earlier studies. The Maternal Adiposity, Metabolism and Stress (MAMAS) study, conducted between August 2011 and June 2013, investigated an eight-week mindfulness-based intervention on gestational weight gain in low-income pregnant women in California. Participants were individuals with a body mass index in the overweight or obesity range, with a household income 500% less than US federal poverty guidelines. The Family Food Study (FFS), conducted between September 2018 and December 2019, studied low-income families in Michigan to assess associations between food insecurity, child weight gain and maternal weight gain. Participants were adult female-identified caregivers with children aged 8 through 10 years and a household income less than 200% of the US federal poverty guidelines.

Food security was measured using the US Household Food Security Module. It assesses the frequency of food insecurity experiences, such as worrying whether food would run out before more money arrives to buy more or cutting the size of meals or skipping meals because there was not enough money to buy food. Food addiction was measured by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), a tool that uses substance use disorder criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), adapted to the context of highly processed food. The MAMAS study used the original YFAS based on DSM-IV; the FFS study used a modified version based on DSM-5. Use of different versions of the YFAS as the outcome measure means that these results cannot necessarily be compared meaningfully across samples.

The researchers found no significant demographic differences between participants in food-secure and food-insecure households. Participants in food-insecure households in both samples reported significantly more food-addiction symptoms compared with participants in food-secure households. In MAMAS, pregnant individuals in food-insecure households had 21% more food addiction symptoms than individuals from food-secure households. In FFS, caregivers in food-insecure households had 56% more food addiction symptoms than caregivers in food-secure households.

?A key strength of the study is that we observed consistent associations across two distinct samples of low-income female adults with a high prevalence of food insecurity,? observes lead investigator Cindy W. Leung, ScD, MPH, Assistant Professor of Public Health Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. ?Despite data collected in different geographic regions, at different time periods, and different stages of parenthood or caregiving, the similarity of the associations suggests that this link between food insecurity and food addiction is concerning and deserves further continued investigation.?

Ms. Parnarouskis notes that since this is the first study to report this association, further research is needed to replicate these preliminary findings and test in other samples to generalize to the broader population, particularly because YFAS has not been psychometrically validated in either food-insecure or pregnant individuals. It is possible that endorsement of food addiction symptoms in food-insecure individuals reflects increased hedonic urges to eat any available foods, not just highly processed foods typically implicated in food addiction.

In an accompanying editorial, lead author Kara A. Christensen, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA, and coauthors point to the necessity of further qualitative and quantitative testing of measures assessing eating behaviors to validate their use in populations with food insecurity. Furthermore, they urge researchers to work together to conduct psychometric validations of eating behavior measures that incorporate the intersectional identities common to people with food insecurity.

Dr. Christensen and coauthors emphasize that ?considering the reasons that eating behavior measures such as the YFAS could conceivably capture different constructs in people with food insecurity, one must be cautious in interpreting findings using these measures to avoid overpathologizing or misclassifying behaviors. Thus, to advance understanding of maladaptive eating behaviors in these populations and enhance confidence in findings, more psychometric testing of measures is required in populations with food insecurity. Such studies will enhance the field?s ability to understand phenomena related to food insecurity and to draw conclusions that can positively impact public health, nutrition and dietetics, public policy and mental health treatment.?

?If families with low incomes have disproportionate access to food with addictive potential, this represents an important social justice issue, on a par with lack of access to clean water or adequate housing, which needs to be addressed through systemic policy and environmental changes,? Dr. Leung concludes. ?We need more research on what mechanisms are driving this association to inform policies to ensure that people have equitable access to nutritious food.?

We want to say thanks to the writer of this article for this incredible content

Women facing food insecurity could be at high risk for addiction to highly processed food

[date_timestamp] => 1664132562 ) [4] => Array ( [title] => When Samuel L. Jackson defended Quentin Tarantino against racism claims [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/trending-people/when-samuel-l-jackson-defended-quentin-tarantino-against-racism-claims/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Pauline Moonlky ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 18:32:51 +0000 [category] => Trending PeopleclaimsdefendedJacksonQuentinracismSamuelTarantino [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47310 [description] => It is indeed true that some filmmakers have their favourites, with Martin Scorsese having a love for Robert De Niro, James Gunn having a fondness for Michael Rooker and Jordan Peele liking Daniel Kaluuya. For American director Quentin Tarantino, this collaborator is, without a doubt,  Samuel L. Jackson, an actor who has appeared in six ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

It is indeed true that some filmmakers have their favourites, with Martin Scorsese having a love for Robert De Niro, James Gunn having a fondness for Michael Rooker and Jordan Peele liking Daniel Kaluuya. For American director Quentin Tarantino, this collaborator is, without a doubt,  Samuel L. Jackson, an actor who has appeared in six of the filmmaker?s movies, including his Palme d?Or winner, Pulp Fiction.

The iconic Pulp Fiction may be Jackson?s most iconic Tarantino role, but he has also had the opportunity to appear in Jackie Brown with Robert De Niro, Kill Bill: Vol. 2, Inglourious Basterds and The Hateful Eight. In addition, Jackson also made a significant impact in the 2012 Oscar-winning western, Django Unchainedwith the movie telling of the horrors of the slave trade with the pervasive use of the n-word, causing controversy in the media.

Feeling the need to defend Tarantino, Jackson spoke to several outlets at the time to discuss the honourable intentions of the influential filmmaker.

In an interview which recently re-surfaced online, Jackson states: ?It seems like he has enough problems being vilified by himself as a racist because he uses the n-word in his scripts so much, or puts those kinds of words in a character?s mouth?.

Continuing in his defence of the director, Jackson adds: ?I always tell people, I don?t understand why they can?t look at his work and realise that every character he?s ever given me has pretty much been the smartest guy in the film?. Indeed, throughout each of his six appearances in Tarantino?s filmography, Jackson has been handed a great number of compelling characters, with his roles in Pulp Fiction, The Hateful Eight and Jackie Brown sticking out, the latter of which is his favourite of the director?s films.

As Jackson describes, his characters have had ?the most dignity and respect, and kind of runs things and is not a fool of any sort and understands a whole lot about what?s going on in life and in the world?. Detailed roles with layers of personality, Tarantino has never written a thin character for Jackson, with the actor concluding, ?for him to write characters like that for me would be impossible for a racist to do?.

Revealing the two most important directors of his career, Jackson spoke to Howard Stern in 2019 and agreed that Tarantino was one of those names, though he disputed that Spike Lee had been an influential figure in his career.

Speaking in the interviewJackson states: ?There are other people. I?d say George Lucas,? bringing to light his role as Mace Windu in the Star Wars prequel films of the early 21st century. A significant character in the recent set of films, many fans of the sci-fi movie series have asked for the return of Jackson?s Windu. Whilst he is yet to physically re-appear in the live-action movies, he did perform a small voice part in The Rise of Skywalker.

We would like to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this remarkable content

When Samuel L. Jackson defended Quentin Tarantino against racism claims

) [summary] => It is indeed true that some filmmakers have their favourites, with Martin Scorsese having a love for Robert De Niro, James Gunn having a fondness for Michael Rooker and Jordan Peele liking Daniel Kaluuya. For American director Quentin Tarantino, this collaborator is, without a doubt,  Samuel L. Jackson, an actor who has appeared in six ... Read more [atom_content] =>

It is indeed true that some filmmakers have their favourites, with Martin Scorsese having a love for Robert De Niro, James Gunn having a fondness for Michael Rooker and Jordan Peele liking Daniel Kaluuya. For American director Quentin Tarantino, this collaborator is, without a doubt,  Samuel L. Jackson, an actor who has appeared in six of the filmmaker?s movies, including his Palme d?Or winner, Pulp Fiction.

The iconic Pulp Fiction may be Jackson?s most iconic Tarantino role, but he has also had the opportunity to appear in Jackie Brown with Robert De Niro, Kill Bill: Vol. 2, Inglourious Basterds and The Hateful Eight. In addition, Jackson also made a significant impact in the 2012 Oscar-winning western, Django Unchainedwith the movie telling of the horrors of the slave trade with the pervasive use of the n-word, causing controversy in the media.

Feeling the need to defend Tarantino, Jackson spoke to several outlets at the time to discuss the honourable intentions of the influential filmmaker.

In an interview which recently re-surfaced online, Jackson states: ?It seems like he has enough problems being vilified by himself as a racist because he uses the n-word in his scripts so much, or puts those kinds of words in a character?s mouth?.

Continuing in his defence of the director, Jackson adds: ?I always tell people, I don?t understand why they can?t look at his work and realise that every character he?s ever given me has pretty much been the smartest guy in the film?. Indeed, throughout each of his six appearances in Tarantino?s filmography, Jackson has been handed a great number of compelling characters, with his roles in Pulp Fiction, The Hateful Eight and Jackie Brown sticking out, the latter of which is his favourite of the director?s films.

As Jackson describes, his characters have had ?the most dignity and respect, and kind of runs things and is not a fool of any sort and understands a whole lot about what?s going on in life and in the world?. Detailed roles with layers of personality, Tarantino has never written a thin character for Jackson, with the actor concluding, ?for him to write characters like that for me would be impossible for a racist to do?.

Revealing the two most important directors of his career, Jackson spoke to Howard Stern in 2019 and agreed that Tarantino was one of those names, though he disputed that Spike Lee had been an influential figure in his career.

Speaking in the interviewJackson states: ?There are other people. I?d say George Lucas,? bringing to light his role as Mace Windu in the Star Wars prequel films of the early 21st century. A significant character in the recent set of films, many fans of the sci-fi movie series have asked for the return of Jackson?s Windu. Whilst he is yet to physically re-appear in the live-action movies, he did perform a small voice part in The Rise of Skywalker.

We would like to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this remarkable content

When Samuel L. Jackson defended Quentin Tarantino against racism claims

[date_timestamp] => 1664130771 ) [5] => Array ( [title] => Seeing the unseen: Birth and death of tree roots under a future atmosphere [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/healthandscience/seeing-the-unseen-birth-and-death-of-tree-roots-under-a-future-atmosphere/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 17:46:05 +0000 [category] => Health And Scienceatmospherebirthdeathfuturerootstreeunseen [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47305 [description] => Journal Reference: Clare Ziegler, Aleksandra Kulawska, Angeliki Kourmouli, Liz Hamilton, Zongbo Shi, A. Rob MacKenzie, Rosemary J. Dyson, Iain G. Johnston. Quantification and uncertainty of root growth stimulation by elevated CO2 in a mature temperate deciduous forest. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 854: 158661 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158661 This flow of extra carbon below ground is ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Clare Ziegler, Aleksandra Kulawska, Angeliki Kourmouli, Liz Hamilton, Zongbo Shi, A. Rob MacKenzie, Rosemary J. Dyson, Iain G. Johnston. Quantification and uncertainty of root growth stimulation by elevated CO2 in a mature temperate deciduous forest. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 854: 158661 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158661

This flow of extra carbon below ground is an important, and often overlooked, way in which the natural world will respond to ongoing and future greenhouse gas emissions.

In a new study, led by the Universities of Birmingham, in the UK, and Bergen, in Norway, researchers have shown that atmospheric CO2 pumped into a mature forest at levels predicted to be the norm by 2050 will cause trees to produce more and longer roots.

The research, published in Science of the Total Environment, was carried out in the Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) facility, operated by the Birmingham Institute of Forest Research (BIFoR). It complements earlier research which shows the same trees will increase their rate of photosynthesis by up to a third under elevated CO2 conditions.

BIFoR FACE is a ?sci-fi? forest, representing one third of the world?s largest experiment investigating the effect of global change on nature. It forms a giant ?ecosystem-o-scope? with sister facilities near Sydney, in Australia, and Manaus, in the Amazon. In each of these facilities, extra CO2 is introduced, bringing the air to what is predicted to be the norm globally by 2050. To maintain the naturalness of the forest, the CO2-rich air is added using an ?invisible curtain? approach without roof or walls.

In the study, a research team gathered thousands of images of tiny tree roots, sometimes less than a millimetre wide, assembled over two years in the BIFoR FACE forest. These images were used to build a mathematical picture of the birth, growth, and death, of roots in an oak forest. Some images were taken of the roots in place, using a high-res camera sent under the forest floor in a set of long Perspex tubes. Other images were from roots painstakingly teased out of cores of soil extracted from the experiment.

Professor Iain Johnston, who led the study from Birmingham and then Bergen, explained, ?It?s obviously hard to view these processes going on beneath the ground. But a combination of innovative engineering and careful field and lab work from our team have helped us shed new light on this behaviour ? and on how confident we can be in our findings.?

Mathematical modelling and data analysis of the images, carried out at BIFoR and at the University of Bergen, concluded that more and longer roots appear beneath the trees growing in the high carbon dioxide atmosphere.

Representing the closely-knit team of four women scientists who carried out the fieldwork and mathematical analysis, Birmingham researcher Clare Ziegler said, ?This work represents a great deal of collaboration, from student volunteers to the BIFoR leadership team. The researchers echoed this collaborative spirit, using our individual strengths in environmental science, biosciences, and mathematical modelling to gain an understanding that was greater than the sum of its parts, and would not have been possible with a single-disciplinary approach.?

The results support other evidence that trees do, and may continue to, provide limited protection against fossil-fuel derived increases in carbon dioxide and, hence, climate change, by absorbing and storing the carbon. Although this is by no means enough protection to significantly offset our emissions.

Colleague and researcher Angeliki Kourmouli said, ?We usually take soil for granted, but it forms a crucial part of many ecosystems and plays a significant role in carbon storage. Understanding what goes on below ground when the forest experiences not only increased CO2, but also the additional stresses of climate change such as extreme weather, gives us really important insights into what we can expect in the future.?

Professor Rob MacKenzie, founding Director of BIFoR, added: ?Now we have hard evidence that the extra carbon is being used, in part, to help the trees explore the nutrient-rich world beneath them. I?m tempted to say that the roots live long and prosper under the future atmosphere, but it will take more years of careful observation to be sure that is indeed the case.?

We want to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this incredible web content

Seeing the unseen: Birth and death of tree roots under a future atmosphere

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Clare Ziegler, Aleksandra Kulawska, Angeliki Kourmouli, Liz Hamilton, Zongbo Shi, A. Rob MacKenzie, Rosemary J. Dyson, Iain G. Johnston. Quantification and uncertainty of root growth stimulation by elevated CO2 in a mature temperate deciduous forest. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 854: 158661 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158661 This flow of extra carbon below ground is ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Clare Ziegler, Aleksandra Kulawska, Angeliki Kourmouli, Liz Hamilton, Zongbo Shi, A. Rob MacKenzie, Rosemary J. Dyson, Iain G. Johnston. Quantification and uncertainty of root growth stimulation by elevated CO2 in a mature temperate deciduous forest. Science of The Total Environment, 2023; 854: 158661 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158661

This flow of extra carbon below ground is an important, and often overlooked, way in which the natural world will respond to ongoing and future greenhouse gas emissions.

In a new study, led by the Universities of Birmingham, in the UK, and Bergen, in Norway, researchers have shown that atmospheric CO2 pumped into a mature forest at levels predicted to be the norm by 2050 will cause trees to produce more and longer roots.

The research, published in Science of the Total Environment, was carried out in the Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) facility, operated by the Birmingham Institute of Forest Research (BIFoR). It complements earlier research which shows the same trees will increase their rate of photosynthesis by up to a third under elevated CO2 conditions.

BIFoR FACE is a ?sci-fi? forest, representing one third of the world?s largest experiment investigating the effect of global change on nature. It forms a giant ?ecosystem-o-scope? with sister facilities near Sydney, in Australia, and Manaus, in the Amazon. In each of these facilities, extra CO2 is introduced, bringing the air to what is predicted to be the norm globally by 2050. To maintain the naturalness of the forest, the CO2-rich air is added using an ?invisible curtain? approach without roof or walls.

In the study, a research team gathered thousands of images of tiny tree roots, sometimes less than a millimetre wide, assembled over two years in the BIFoR FACE forest. These images were used to build a mathematical picture of the birth, growth, and death, of roots in an oak forest. Some images were taken of the roots in place, using a high-res camera sent under the forest floor in a set of long Perspex tubes. Other images were from roots painstakingly teased out of cores of soil extracted from the experiment.

Professor Iain Johnston, who led the study from Birmingham and then Bergen, explained, ?It?s obviously hard to view these processes going on beneath the ground. But a combination of innovative engineering and careful field and lab work from our team have helped us shed new light on this behaviour ? and on how confident we can be in our findings.?

Mathematical modelling and data analysis of the images, carried out at BIFoR and at the University of Bergen, concluded that more and longer roots appear beneath the trees growing in the high carbon dioxide atmosphere.

Representing the closely-knit team of four women scientists who carried out the fieldwork and mathematical analysis, Birmingham researcher Clare Ziegler said, ?This work represents a great deal of collaboration, from student volunteers to the BIFoR leadership team. The researchers echoed this collaborative spirit, using our individual strengths in environmental science, biosciences, and mathematical modelling to gain an understanding that was greater than the sum of its parts, and would not have been possible with a single-disciplinary approach.?

The results support other evidence that trees do, and may continue to, provide limited protection against fossil-fuel derived increases in carbon dioxide and, hence, climate change, by absorbing and storing the carbon. Although this is by no means enough protection to significantly offset our emissions.

Colleague and researcher Angeliki Kourmouli said, ?We usually take soil for granted, but it forms a crucial part of many ecosystems and plays a significant role in carbon storage. Understanding what goes on below ground when the forest experiences not only increased CO2, but also the additional stresses of climate change such as extreme weather, gives us really important insights into what we can expect in the future.?

Professor Rob MacKenzie, founding Director of BIFoR, added: ?Now we have hard evidence that the extra carbon is being used, in part, to help the trees explore the nutrient-rich world beneath them. I?m tempted to say that the roots live long and prosper under the future atmosphere, but it will take more years of careful observation to be sure that is indeed the case.?

We want to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this incredible web content

Seeing the unseen: Birth and death of tree roots under a future atmosphere

[date_timestamp] => 1664127965 ) [6] => Array ( [title] => How do we deal with people who criticize or belittle our child? ? Cool Parents Make Happy Kids [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/magazine/how-do-we-deal-with-people-who-criticize-or-belittle-our-child-cool-parents-make-happy-kids/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Pauline Moonlky ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 16:59:16 +0000 [category] => MagazinebelittlechildcoolcriticizeDealHappyKidsParentsPeople [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47300 [description] => Certain remarks from those around us addressed to our children displease us, even annoy us: ?I don’t like capricious children?, ?stop crying?, ?you are a naughty little girl?. How to react to these criticisms? Thank you to the parent-readers of CPMHK who lent themselves to the debate and shared their inspiring testimonies with us. Here ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Certain remarks from those around us addressed to our children displease us, even annoy us: ?I don’t like capricious children?, ?stop crying?, ?you are a naughty little girl?. How to react to these criticisms? Thank you to the parent-readers of CPMHK who lent themselves to the debate and shared their inspiring testimonies with us. Here is a short summary and the opinion of Cool Parents Make Happy Kids on the subject!

Testimonials: reactions of parents when we attack our child

How to react when an adult criticizes our child, belittles him or judges our way of education? It is not always obvious. Here is a little medley of testimonials on various points… and immediately after, our tips for taking some distance and finding the right tone.

Take into account recent developments in the understanding of the child’s brain

The opinion of “Maman Chou” is unanimous: this kind of reflection can annoy!

?I hate it and I try to take people back when it happens in a flexible and diplomatic way of course! I find it unfair because these are always remarks on normal behavior of children of this age.

And when we learn about the development of children and that we are pro ?benevolent education?, it is annoying to see that many have an erroneous or old school vision of children and that they remain on their received ideas for lack of information, observation or even interest??

In fact, these reflections annoy us not only for our child, but also (especially?) because by criticizing our child, it’s a bit like being accused of being a bad parent!

Does criticizing our child imply that we are a bad parent?

?When our daughter was 2-3 months younger, she had colic and our family began to say ?I say, what a character!? We said right away that we didn’t like such comments being made about our daughter, especially in her presence! And that she was obviously too small to make whims! They struggled a bit with being forced to do something, but if the remarks had continued, I think I would have seen them less and less. With my husband, we don’t want her to be stigmatized from an early age. We explained a lot to them about our point of view. Finally, they don’t do too much anymore. Fortunately??

Make sure our child is not hurt by these words

Ninou gives us one of her tips:

?I rectify with my son by saying for example: Gaël is not a capricious child, he simply expresses a need or an emotion at the moment T! By insisting loud and clear that the adult feels ill at ease and thinks a little about the nonsense he has just said! ?

Stéphanie has her little sentence that hits home:

?We don’t punish here. If punishment educated, there would be no more crimes on earth a long time ago. I like it there !?

Learn the right to be different

For Preci:

?I’m seriously considering getting some t-shirts made for my 2 year old ?I’m not badly-bred, I’m autistic? t-shirts. No, because well, reflections, it’s two minutes, huh!?

Ignore reviews

And for Natasha:

?It depends, sometimes I don’t answer anything, especially if the remark is made directly to my children (5 months and 2.5 years old) and I watch the reaction of my 2.5 year old son. In the future, he will sometimes have remarks at school and I won’t be there to ?defend? him, so I let him build his character. But if someone makes comments to me about the education I give, I reply and I explain my point of view and that’s how it is since they are my children!?

Reading these remarks, I said to myself that we could distinguish two things: the negative impact the remark may have on our child on the one hand, and the feeling that our education is being challenged on the other hand.

What is the feeling that crosses us at the time of the remark? Pain for our child who we feel hurt? Or anger, because we have the impression that the person is judging us, does not approve of our education or questions it?

Our tips for responding to people who criticize or belittle our children

Have confidence in our upbringing, and (try to) not be hurt by the remarks of others

NOUVEAU

If it is we who are hurt or hurt by the comment, I think the solution is within us. The others don’t agree with the education we give, so what? We’re not going to change them, and the best way to convince them is to wait a few years (or next week): they’ll see for themselves. The important thing is to be convinced yourself.

Yes, I know why the children of yesterday were wiser than the children of today (well, it seems)? And I am so happy for my children that they dare not be good, that they dare to say what they think and disagree with grown-ups. I am proud that my children are not afraid to be themselves, to express their joy loud and clear, to run, to jump, to be true. Others can say what they want, that doesn’t affect me, because I’m happy to see them so fulfilled, happy and united among themselves. I’m not going to get into a debate on education with people who don’t want to hear it, what’s the point of wasting time? I’m not mad at them, they’re in their reality, but it’s not mine.

Protect the child who cannot defend himself

The situation is different when these remarks are likely to directly hurt our child. If the child does not speak, we can obviously defend him. As in the super-testimonials of Cool parents, there is no need to be aggressive, we reposition things in the face of criticism or hurtful comments. In this way, the child hears (and learns) that we can disagree while remaining respectful… and he gleans along the way what we think of him or the situation (“No, it’s not that he is slow. It is that he likes to take the time to reflect.?)

But if the child knows how to express himself well, that seems different to me: as for an argument between brother and sister, what do we really gain by intervening? There is a risk of discrediting the adult, who will feel attacked and will tend to withdraw rather than want to open the debate. As for the child, defended in this way when he hasn’t asked for anything, he runs the risk of believing that his parent will always be there to protect him and that he is not capable of defending himself alone (“I don’t care). damn I’m going to tell my mother!?).

Teach our child to defend himself

In this case, the best is still to teach your child to face this kind of criticism alone. How ? A bit like in an argument between two children...

Besides, if you are looking for tips to help your child gain more self-confidence, I have prepared you the ?SELF CONFIDENCE? PACK ? Everything for our little ones to believe strongly in themselves. You will find food for thought and advice that is easy to put in place to guide your child. Just leave me your email, and receive it for free?

1/ Take care of the ?victim? first

There will always be ?toxic? people, we are not going to change them or isolate them, so we might as well teach our child to manage them!

We discuss the scene again with our child:

  • ?You know when Machin said you were mean? You have to know that I don’t agree with him, you’re not a mean person. But I think he felt attacked, and that made her angry. Suddenly, he could say things he did not mean. In these cases, the best is still to tell him how you feel: “I’m not mean, I’m angry because I had the impression that you refused me this slice of sausage just to bother me for no reason. And that’s what made me angry with you?.
  • You know earlier when Grandma said you were a picky little boy? I disagree with her. I think she misinterpreted your anger, that she didn’t do it on purpose. But you, you can help him to better understand your emotions, by simply saying what you think: “No, I’m not having a whim, I’m just angry because I feel like I’m being forbidden things and it’s not fair! I don’t understand because I didn’t deserve it!?

2/ Help him to detach himself from the words of others

Faced with violence and aggression from others, we must teach our child to take a step back, to ?detach? from this aggression. You have to help him understand that if someone is angry, it’s not necessarily his fault. In fact, it may simply be that this person is stressed, or has misinterpreted a behavior (eg: a misunderstood joke). Besides, Non Violent Communication is a great way to teach our children (and us) to respond and express themselves.

You have to teach him not to take things literally: it’s not because someone tells him ?you’re naughty? that it’s true? even if it’s an adult who says it!

It’s not easy of course… But also to use to help him overcome the problems he encounters at school, see this article: Helping our child overcome the naughtiness of the playground

3/ Faced with the accusation, teach him to express his emotions

What is simpler, on the other hand, is to teach the child to express his feelings because this avoids misunderstandings and can defuse many situations. By avoiding accusing the other and simply saying what he feels, the child adopts a positive mode of communication and avoids pointing at his interlocutor. It’s a great way to defend yourself.

And by dint of giving him suggestions for answers that go in this direction, and showing him the example, he too will take the fold (it sometimes takes several years of course!).

At home, Joy and Leon aren’t always able to react in the best way, but when I hear them say “I’m angry / I’m sad” rather than “You’re mean”, I tell myself that we’re going in the right direction !

Take time to ask things to the person ?who criticizes?

All this does not prevent us from taking a little moment to speak calmly, and one-on-one, to the person who regularly ?attacks? our child. Even if the criticism comes from grandparents or in-laws, we can bring up the subject calmly. We will also have a much better chance that she will listen to us if we do not question her in front of our child (which would risk humiliating her and also discrediting her). Again, nothing better than to express his feelings: ?You know, I’m really annoyed, because now I have a lump in my stomach every time I have to spend holidays with you. I feel spied on and criticized. It’s getting harder and harder for me. I don’t want to get to the point where we finally decide not to come anymore. I have the impression that our child also suffers from it. He feels criticized, unloved, and that makes bad behavior worse, etc.

Protect your daily life from people who are too toxic

If the toxic person is someone we see daily, it can become harmful. But before ending any relationship, the main thing is to carefully study the way the child reacts, and to talk about it with him. As a parent, we want to protect our child at all costs, but sometimes it goes over his head, or he is able to take the necessary step back so as not to suffer from certain thoughts. In this case, it would be a shame to make a cheese out of it when our child saw it well!

If we see that he is suffering from it, on the other hand, we must not hesitate to make him distance himself.

A whole subject to ponder, and not always easy to apply.

We want to give thanks to the writer of this article for this incredible web content

How do we deal with people who criticize or belittle our child? – Cool Parents Make Happy Kids

) [summary] => Certain remarks from those around us addressed to our children displease us, even annoy us: ?I don’t like capricious children?, ?stop crying?, ?you are a naughty little girl?. How to react to these criticisms? Thank you to the parent-readers of CPMHK who lent themselves to the debate and shared their inspiring testimonies with us. Here ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Certain remarks from those around us addressed to our children displease us, even annoy us: ?I don’t like capricious children?, ?stop crying?, ?you are a naughty little girl?. How to react to these criticisms? Thank you to the parent-readers of CPMHK who lent themselves to the debate and shared their inspiring testimonies with us. Here is a short summary and the opinion of Cool Parents Make Happy Kids on the subject!

Testimonials: reactions of parents when we attack our child

How to react when an adult criticizes our child, belittles him or judges our way of education? It is not always obvious. Here is a little medley of testimonials on various points… and immediately after, our tips for taking some distance and finding the right tone.

Take into account recent developments in the understanding of the child’s brain

The opinion of “Maman Chou” is unanimous: this kind of reflection can annoy!

?I hate it and I try to take people back when it happens in a flexible and diplomatic way of course! I find it unfair because these are always remarks on normal behavior of children of this age.

And when we learn about the development of children and that we are pro ?benevolent education?, it is annoying to see that many have an erroneous or old school vision of children and that they remain on their received ideas for lack of information, observation or even interest??

In fact, these reflections annoy us not only for our child, but also (especially?) because by criticizing our child, it’s a bit like being accused of being a bad parent!

Does criticizing our child imply that we are a bad parent?

?When our daughter was 2-3 months younger, she had colic and our family began to say ?I say, what a character!? We said right away that we didn’t like such comments being made about our daughter, especially in her presence! And that she was obviously too small to make whims! They struggled a bit with being forced to do something, but if the remarks had continued, I think I would have seen them less and less. With my husband, we don’t want her to be stigmatized from an early age. We explained a lot to them about our point of view. Finally, they don’t do too much anymore. Fortunately??

Make sure our child is not hurt by these words

Ninou gives us one of her tips:

?I rectify with my son by saying for example: Gaël is not a capricious child, he simply expresses a need or an emotion at the moment T! By insisting loud and clear that the adult feels ill at ease and thinks a little about the nonsense he has just said! ?

Stéphanie has her little sentence that hits home:

?We don’t punish here. If punishment educated, there would be no more crimes on earth a long time ago. I like it there !?

Learn the right to be different

For Preci:

?I’m seriously considering getting some t-shirts made for my 2 year old ?I’m not badly-bred, I’m autistic? t-shirts. No, because well, reflections, it’s two minutes, huh!?

Ignore reviews

And for Natasha:

?It depends, sometimes I don’t answer anything, especially if the remark is made directly to my children (5 months and 2.5 years old) and I watch the reaction of my 2.5 year old son. In the future, he will sometimes have remarks at school and I won’t be there to ?defend? him, so I let him build his character. But if someone makes comments to me about the education I give, I reply and I explain my point of view and that’s how it is since they are my children!?

Reading these remarks, I said to myself that we could distinguish two things: the negative impact the remark may have on our child on the one hand, and the feeling that our education is being challenged on the other hand.

What is the feeling that crosses us at the time of the remark? Pain for our child who we feel hurt? Or anger, because we have the impression that the person is judging us, does not approve of our education or questions it?

Our tips for responding to people who criticize or belittle our children

Have confidence in our upbringing, and (try to) not be hurt by the remarks of others

NOUVEAU

If it is we who are hurt or hurt by the comment, I think the solution is within us. The others don’t agree with the education we give, so what? We’re not going to change them, and the best way to convince them is to wait a few years (or next week): they’ll see for themselves. The important thing is to be convinced yourself.

Yes, I know why the children of yesterday were wiser than the children of today (well, it seems)? And I am so happy for my children that they dare not be good, that they dare to say what they think and disagree with grown-ups. I am proud that my children are not afraid to be themselves, to express their joy loud and clear, to run, to jump, to be true. Others can say what they want, that doesn’t affect me, because I’m happy to see them so fulfilled, happy and united among themselves. I’m not going to get into a debate on education with people who don’t want to hear it, what’s the point of wasting time? I’m not mad at them, they’re in their reality, but it’s not mine.

Protect the child who cannot defend himself

The situation is different when these remarks are likely to directly hurt our child. If the child does not speak, we can obviously defend him. As in the super-testimonials of Cool parents, there is no need to be aggressive, we reposition things in the face of criticism or hurtful comments. In this way, the child hears (and learns) that we can disagree while remaining respectful… and he gleans along the way what we think of him or the situation (“No, it’s not that he is slow. It is that he likes to take the time to reflect.?)

But if the child knows how to express himself well, that seems different to me: as for an argument between brother and sister, what do we really gain by intervening? There is a risk of discrediting the adult, who will feel attacked and will tend to withdraw rather than want to open the debate. As for the child, defended in this way when he hasn’t asked for anything, he runs the risk of believing that his parent will always be there to protect him and that he is not capable of defending himself alone (“I don’t care). damn I’m going to tell my mother!?).

Teach our child to defend himself

In this case, the best is still to teach your child to face this kind of criticism alone. How ? A bit like in an argument between two children...

Besides, if you are looking for tips to help your child gain more self-confidence, I have prepared you the ?SELF CONFIDENCE? PACK ? Everything for our little ones to believe strongly in themselves. You will find food for thought and advice that is easy to put in place to guide your child. Just leave me your email, and receive it for free?

1/ Take care of the ?victim? first

There will always be ?toxic? people, we are not going to change them or isolate them, so we might as well teach our child to manage them!

We discuss the scene again with our child:

  • ?You know when Machin said you were mean? You have to know that I don’t agree with him, you’re not a mean person. But I think he felt attacked, and that made her angry. Suddenly, he could say things he did not mean. In these cases, the best is still to tell him how you feel: “I’m not mean, I’m angry because I had the impression that you refused me this slice of sausage just to bother me for no reason. And that’s what made me angry with you?.
  • You know earlier when Grandma said you were a picky little boy? I disagree with her. I think she misinterpreted your anger, that she didn’t do it on purpose. But you, you can help him to better understand your emotions, by simply saying what you think: “No, I’m not having a whim, I’m just angry because I feel like I’m being forbidden things and it’s not fair! I don’t understand because I didn’t deserve it!?

2/ Help him to detach himself from the words of others

Faced with violence and aggression from others, we must teach our child to take a step back, to ?detach? from this aggression. You have to help him understand that if someone is angry, it’s not necessarily his fault. In fact, it may simply be that this person is stressed, or has misinterpreted a behavior (eg: a misunderstood joke). Besides, Non Violent Communication is a great way to teach our children (and us) to respond and express themselves.

You have to teach him not to take things literally: it’s not because someone tells him ?you’re naughty? that it’s true? even if it’s an adult who says it!

It’s not easy of course… But also to use to help him overcome the problems he encounters at school, see this article: Helping our child overcome the naughtiness of the playground

3/ Faced with the accusation, teach him to express his emotions

What is simpler, on the other hand, is to teach the child to express his feelings because this avoids misunderstandings and can defuse many situations. By avoiding accusing the other and simply saying what he feels, the child adopts a positive mode of communication and avoids pointing at his interlocutor. It’s a great way to defend yourself.

And by dint of giving him suggestions for answers that go in this direction, and showing him the example, he too will take the fold (it sometimes takes several years of course!).

At home, Joy and Leon aren’t always able to react in the best way, but when I hear them say “I’m angry / I’m sad” rather than “You’re mean”, I tell myself that we’re going in the right direction !

Take time to ask things to the person ?who criticizes?

All this does not prevent us from taking a little moment to speak calmly, and one-on-one, to the person who regularly ?attacks? our child. Even if the criticism comes from grandparents or in-laws, we can bring up the subject calmly. We will also have a much better chance that she will listen to us if we do not question her in front of our child (which would risk humiliating her and also discrediting her). Again, nothing better than to express his feelings: ?You know, I’m really annoyed, because now I have a lump in my stomach every time I have to spend holidays with you. I feel spied on and criticized. It’s getting harder and harder for me. I don’t want to get to the point where we finally decide not to come anymore. I have the impression that our child also suffers from it. He feels criticized, unloved, and that makes bad behavior worse, etc.

Protect your daily life from people who are too toxic

If the toxic person is someone we see daily, it can become harmful. But before ending any relationship, the main thing is to carefully study the way the child reacts, and to talk about it with him. As a parent, we want to protect our child at all costs, but sometimes it goes over his head, or he is able to take the necessary step back so as not to suffer from certain thoughts. In this case, it would be a shame to make a cheese out of it when our child saw it well!

If we see that he is suffering from it, on the other hand, we must not hesitate to make him distance himself.

A whole subject to ponder, and not always easy to apply.

We want to give thanks to the writer of this article for this incredible web content

How do we deal with people who criticize or belittle our child? – Cool Parents Make Happy Kids

[date_timestamp] => 1664125156 ) [7] => Array ( [title] => Elon Musk against the censorship of dictatorships: he promises to take his internet via satellite to Cuba and Iran [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/influential-people/elon-musk-against-the-censorship-of-dictatorships-he-promises-to-take-his-internet-via-satellite-to-cuba-and-iran/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Harold Kent ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 16:55:23 +0000 [category] => Influential PeoplecensorshipCubadictatorshipsEloninternetIránMuskpromisessatellite [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47294 [description] => A simple tweet in the Spanish midnight of Elon Musk has raised all the alarms in dictatorships such as those of Iran o Cuba. The tycoon has put aside his fights with China so that the factories Tesla do not close and continue producing cars. Nor does he want to know anything about Twitter and ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

A simple tweet in the Spanish midnight of Elon Musk has raised all the alarms in dictatorships such as those of Iran o Cuba.

The tycoon has put aside his fights with China so that the factories Tesla do not close and continue producing cars. Nor does he want to know anything about Twitter and your purchase intent. Its objectives focus on Starlinkits satellite Internet system, reaches all corners of the world, beyond the antarcticawhere it also operates.

A journalist and writer named Erfan Kasraie with more than 25,000 followers on Twitter, he threw Musk the question about whether Starlink would reach Iran because that would be “a game changer for the future.” The author of the tweet himself thought that Elon Musk would not respond to the message and so he put it in the tweet, but to his surprise, several hours later the businessman assured that «Starlink will request an exemption from the sanctions Iranians”.

But the thread went further and another account, that of Agustin Antonettia human rights activist, asked him about the case of Cuba and encouraged him to deploy Starlink there because “it would save many lives” to which Musk responded with an “Ok.”

dictatorships

At this point, you have to ask yourself what possibilities Elon Musk has of deploying the Internet in countries governed under iron dictatorships like Iran or Cuba where there is no access to a free internet.

The first response from the Government of USA It has arrived. The Treasury Department announced that satellite Internet equipment could be exported to Iranthis slips the idea that Musk does not need a permit to provide bandwidth in that country.

The statement says it “authorizes certain exports to Iran from hardware, software and services related to communications over the Internet, including certain Internet connectivity services for consumers and residential satellite terminals for consumers authorized under General License D-1».

Masha Believe

All this arises as a result of the protests after the death of Mahsa Aminia 22-year-old woman who died in police custody in Tehran for violating the Islamic dress code.

The protests multiplied in the streets and the Iranian government, as usual, decided to block services such as YouTube. All this comes from afar and Iranians who want connections superior to 128 Mbps they need to justify their professional task at home.

Iran ranks 36th out of 210 countries in the world by the number of Internet users. Internet thanks to the fact that it is a country with many young people who are not willing to suffer the blockades and who look to the sky hoping that Musk’s satellites will offer them freedom. Nothing of the ‘halal web‘, the network that the Government wants to create where information according to Islam can be seen.

Launched at the end of 2020, the service of Starlink It allows access to the Internet, especially in areas poorly provided with landline and mobile networks, by purchasing an antenna, a modem and a subscription whose rates vary according to the country.

Starlink has benefited from a media coup after providing antennas and modems to the ukrainian army to improve their communications in the war against Russia.

Constellation

SpaceXanother Musk company, has already deployed 3,000 Starlink satellites since 2019 and does an average of one launch every week with its own Falcon 9 rockets to put its constellation into orbit.

Iran is under a regime of Economic sanctions by the United States after the withdrawal of the nuclear agreement by former President Donald Trumpas well as a new battery of sanctions since the beginning of September for the delivery of drones to Russia.

If the Internet comes out of the blue to dictatorships like BurmaSaudi Arabia, China, Cuba or Iran, the streets will be the ones that take control and revolt against their rulers, something that is not bad for the United States.

We want to thank the writer of this article for this remarkable content

Elon Musk against the censorship of dictatorships: he promises to take his internet via satellite to Cuba and Iran

) [summary] => A simple tweet in the Spanish midnight of Elon Musk has raised all the alarms in dictatorships such as those of Iran o Cuba. The tycoon has put aside his fights with China so that the factories Tesla do not close and continue producing cars. Nor does he want to know anything about Twitter and ... Read more [atom_content] =>

A simple tweet in the Spanish midnight of Elon Musk has raised all the alarms in dictatorships such as those of Iran o Cuba.

The tycoon has put aside his fights with China so that the factories Tesla do not close and continue producing cars. Nor does he want to know anything about Twitter and your purchase intent. Its objectives focus on Starlinkits satellite Internet system, reaches all corners of the world, beyond the antarcticawhere it also operates.

A journalist and writer named Erfan Kasraie with more than 25,000 followers on Twitter, he threw Musk the question about whether Starlink would reach Iran because that would be “a game changer for the future.” The author of the tweet himself thought that Elon Musk would not respond to the message and so he put it in the tweet, but to his surprise, several hours later the businessman assured that «Starlink will request an exemption from the sanctions Iranians”.

But the thread went further and another account, that of Agustin Antonettia human rights activist, asked him about the case of Cuba and encouraged him to deploy Starlink there because “it would save many lives” to which Musk responded with an “Ok.”

dictatorships

At this point, you have to ask yourself what possibilities Elon Musk has of deploying the Internet in countries governed under iron dictatorships like Iran or Cuba where there is no access to a free internet.

The first response from the Government of USA It has arrived. The Treasury Department announced that satellite Internet equipment could be exported to Iranthis slips the idea that Musk does not need a permit to provide bandwidth in that country.

The statement says it “authorizes certain exports to Iran from hardware, software and services related to communications over the Internet, including certain Internet connectivity services for consumers and residential satellite terminals for consumers authorized under General License D-1».

Masha Believe

All this arises as a result of the protests after the death of Mahsa Aminia 22-year-old woman who died in police custody in Tehran for violating the Islamic dress code.

The protests multiplied in the streets and the Iranian government, as usual, decided to block services such as YouTube. All this comes from afar and Iranians who want connections superior to 128 Mbps they need to justify their professional task at home.

Iran ranks 36th out of 210 countries in the world by the number of Internet users. Internet thanks to the fact that it is a country with many young people who are not willing to suffer the blockades and who look to the sky hoping that Musk’s satellites will offer them freedom. Nothing of the ‘halal web‘, the network that the Government wants to create where information according to Islam can be seen.

Launched at the end of 2020, the service of Starlink It allows access to the Internet, especially in areas poorly provided with landline and mobile networks, by purchasing an antenna, a modem and a subscription whose rates vary according to the country.

Starlink has benefited from a media coup after providing antennas and modems to the ukrainian army to improve their communications in the war against Russia.

Constellation

SpaceXanother Musk company, has already deployed 3,000 Starlink satellites since 2019 and does an average of one launch every week with its own Falcon 9 rockets to put its constellation into orbit.

Iran is under a regime of Economic sanctions by the United States after the withdrawal of the nuclear agreement by former President Donald Trumpas well as a new battery of sanctions since the beginning of September for the delivery of drones to Russia.

If the Internet comes out of the blue to dictatorships like BurmaSaudi Arabia, China, Cuba or Iran, the streets will be the ones that take control and revolt against their rulers, something that is not bad for the United States.

We want to thank the writer of this article for this remarkable content

Elon Musk against the censorship of dictatorships: he promises to take his internet via satellite to Cuba and Iran

[date_timestamp] => 1664124923 ) [8] => Array ( [title] => Bonitta: ?She is a strong Italvolley and she knows she is: world gold is a logical goal? [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/sport/bonitta-she-is-a-strong-italvolley-and-she-knows-she-is-world-gold-is-a-logical-goal/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tim Hall ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 16:50:44 +0000 [category] => SportBonittagoalGoldItalvolleylogicalstrong [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47289 [description] => The coach of the only blue gold, in 2002: “Like mine is a group that comes from afar, some of them play together from the youth teams” Gianluca Pasini September 25th – Milano On 15 September 2002 in Berlin Italy won her first women’s World Cup: she surprised everyone by beating the United States in ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

The coach of the only blue gold, in 2002: “Like mine is a group that comes from afar, some of them play together from the youth teams”

Gianluca Pasini

On 15 September 2002 in Berlin Italy won her first women’s World Cup: she surprised everyone by beating the United States in the final. On the bench of that team was Marco Bonitta, the first Italian coach to win gold. He is the protagonist of various seasons of Italian volleyball. Bonitta, today leads the Slovenia that has just qualified for the 2023 European Championship, how do you see this Italy?

?I see it very well. It seems to want to throw it to Davide Mazzanti’s team, but it is a team that has a lot of talent, a lot of physical strength and, although young, with great experience. He won the last European and the last Nations League. He has a long journey together that comes, in some cases, even from the youth teams ?.

?Plus he has great awareness. Our victory was created during the World Cup. This team, on the other hand, sets out to win. And in my opinion it has that dose of all the qualities you need. He can’t help but think about going and doing it. I think they know it too, I can see it from the declarations ?.

Can’t all the weight of a favorable forecast have a negative impact on the team in such a long World Cup with so many opponents?

?In my opinion it is not a burden. I believe awareness is a beautiful thing. It is clear that there is a thought that says “and if I don’t win after these predictions what happens?” But the positive influence of this awareness is greater. ?I am the strongest and I want to prove it?. And in the team there are people who have “moral talent”. There are girls like Paola Egonu who know they are very strong or the strongest. It is not bravado, it is reality. Also considering that this team has also suffered some beating, so he knows what he is experiencing. And then you need those defeats “.

Do you find analogies or similarities between this Italy and that of 2002?

?Yes both are groups that come from afar. Many girls of similar generations, as had happened for the 2002 group. With a diagonal, Orro-Egonu, who plays together from the youth teams, as happened at the time with Togut and Lo Bianco ?.

You also witnessed the generational change on the bench that helped generate this team. Since it was you who cast Orro and Egonu in seniors at 16 …

?A change has started since 2014. Until that moment the golden generation had been the protagonist in 2002. Lo Bianco, Togut, Piccinini, Del Core and many others. The change begins between 2014 and 2016. That team that later qualified for Rio. The results at the Games were negative, but in that Olympics 4 of today’s players were owners. In the 2002 generation I had already found the generational change already done, with this group it was different ?.

How do you remember that World Cup 20 years ago?

“Like it was yesterday. I remember almost everything, details that have stuck with me. Things that resurface. Almost nothing has been canceled ?.

A victory that was epochal for volleyball. For her?

?At that moment I hardly realized what it meant to win the World Cup. Our goal was to win a medal. We were telling each other almost every day. For me it was the culmination of a journey that began in 1996-97 when I had changed to female. It was also the confirmation that I could lead a top-level team to a prestigious victory. And if in Bergamo I had managed a group of very strong Kirillova players, the Cubans, the best blue. A project had been built with that Italy. And on this path we had won, the year before, a European silver behind Russia. She had given us awareness ?.

What was the strength of that team.

?It was being able to cry out to themselves and to the whole world, that even girls, not just Italian boys, could be in the world elite. It was the demonstration that volleyball was also a winning sport for women, not only noteworthy for aesthetic reasons. The desire for affirmation that that group had was decisive. A granite group, a real captain (Manu Leggeri, ed) who had a little more experience. And then there was a good group also in the staff ?.

We would like to say thanks to the writer of this short article for this incredible web content

Bonitta: “She is a strong Italvolley and she knows she is: world gold is a logical goal”

) [summary] => The coach of the only blue gold, in 2002: “Like mine is a group that comes from afar, some of them play together from the youth teams” Gianluca Pasini September 25th – Milano On 15 September 2002 in Berlin Italy won her first women’s World Cup: she surprised everyone by beating the United States in ... Read more [atom_content] =>

The coach of the only blue gold, in 2002: “Like mine is a group that comes from afar, some of them play together from the youth teams”

Gianluca Pasini

On 15 September 2002 in Berlin Italy won her first women’s World Cup: she surprised everyone by beating the United States in the final. On the bench of that team was Marco Bonitta, the first Italian coach to win gold. He is the protagonist of various seasons of Italian volleyball. Bonitta, today leads the Slovenia that has just qualified for the 2023 European Championship, how do you see this Italy?

?I see it very well. It seems to want to throw it to Davide Mazzanti’s team, but it is a team that has a lot of talent, a lot of physical strength and, although young, with great experience. He won the last European and the last Nations League. He has a long journey together that comes, in some cases, even from the youth teams ?.

?Plus he has great awareness. Our victory was created during the World Cup. This team, on the other hand, sets out to win. And in my opinion it has that dose of all the qualities you need. He can’t help but think about going and doing it. I think they know it too, I can see it from the declarations ?.

Can’t all the weight of a favorable forecast have a negative impact on the team in such a long World Cup with so many opponents?

?In my opinion it is not a burden. I believe awareness is a beautiful thing. It is clear that there is a thought that says “and if I don’t win after these predictions what happens?” But the positive influence of this awareness is greater. ?I am the strongest and I want to prove it?. And in the team there are people who have “moral talent”. There are girls like Paola Egonu who know they are very strong or the strongest. It is not bravado, it is reality. Also considering that this team has also suffered some beating, so he knows what he is experiencing. And then you need those defeats “.

Do you find analogies or similarities between this Italy and that of 2002?

?Yes both are groups that come from afar. Many girls of similar generations, as had happened for the 2002 group. With a diagonal, Orro-Egonu, who plays together from the youth teams, as happened at the time with Togut and Lo Bianco ?.

You also witnessed the generational change on the bench that helped generate this team. Since it was you who cast Orro and Egonu in seniors at 16 …

?A change has started since 2014. Until that moment the golden generation had been the protagonist in 2002. Lo Bianco, Togut, Piccinini, Del Core and many others. The change begins between 2014 and 2016. That team that later qualified for Rio. The results at the Games were negative, but in that Olympics 4 of today’s players were owners. In the 2002 generation I had already found the generational change already done, with this group it was different ?.

How do you remember that World Cup 20 years ago?

“Like it was yesterday. I remember almost everything, details that have stuck with me. Things that resurface. Almost nothing has been canceled ?.

A victory that was epochal for volleyball. For her?

?At that moment I hardly realized what it meant to win the World Cup. Our goal was to win a medal. We were telling each other almost every day. For me it was the culmination of a journey that began in 1996-97 when I had changed to female. It was also the confirmation that I could lead a top-level team to a prestigious victory. And if in Bergamo I had managed a group of very strong Kirillova players, the Cubans, the best blue. A project had been built with that Italy. And on this path we had won, the year before, a European silver behind Russia. She had given us awareness ?.

What was the strength of that team.

?It was being able to cry out to themselves and to the whole world, that even girls, not just Italian boys, could be in the world elite. It was the demonstration that volleyball was also a winning sport for women, not only noteworthy for aesthetic reasons. The desire for affirmation that that group had was decisive. A granite group, a real captain (Manu Leggeri, ed) who had a little more experience. And then there was a good group also in the staff ?.

We would like to say thanks to the writer of this short article for this incredible web content

Bonitta: “She is a strong Italvolley and she knows she is: world gold is a logical goal”

[date_timestamp] => 1664124644 ) [9] => Array ( [title] => New research throws doubt on old ideas of how hearing works [link] => https://coolnspicy.com/healthandscience/new-research-throws-doubt-on-old-ideas-of-how-hearing-works/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Sun, 25 Sep 2022 16:28:51 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencedoubthearingideasThrows [guid] => https://coolnspicy.com/?p=47284 [description] => Journal Reference: George Burwood, Pierre Hakizimana, Alfred L Nuttall, Anders Fridberger. Best frequencies and temporal delays are similar across the low-frequency regions of the guinea pig cochlea. Science Advances, 2022; 8 (38) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq2773 We are social creatures. The sound of other people?s voices is important for us, and our hearing is directed at experiencing ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. George Burwood, Pierre Hakizimana, Alfred L Nuttall, Anders Fridberger. Best frequencies and temporal delays are similar across the low-frequency regions of the guinea pig cochlea. Science Advances, 2022; 8 (38) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq2773

We are social creatures. The sound of other people?s voices is important for us, and our hearing is directed at experiencing and distinguishing voices and human speech. Sound that arrives at the outer ear is carried by the ear drum to the spiral-shaped inner ear, also known as the cochlea. The sensory cells of hearing, outer and inner hair cells, are located in the cochlea. The sound waves cause the ?hairs? of the inner hair cells to bend, sending a signal through the nerves to the brain, which interprets the sound we hear.

For the past 100 years, we have believed that each sensory cell has its own ?optimal frequency? (a measure of the number of sound waves per second). The hair cell responds most strongly to this frequency. This idea means that a sensory cell with an optimal frequency of 1000 Hz would respond much less strongly to sounds with a frequency slightly lower or higher. It has also been assumed that all parts of the cochlea work in the same way. Now, however, , a research team has discovered that this is not the case for sensory cells that process sound with frequencies under 1000 Hz, considered to be low-frequency sound. The vowel sounds in human speech lie in this area.

?Our study shows that many cells in the inner ear react simultaneously to low-frequency sound. We believe that this makes it easier to experience low-frequency sounds than would otherwise be the case, since the brain receives information from many sensory cells at the same time,? says Anders Fridberger, professor in the Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences at Linköping University.

The scientists believe that this construction of our hearing system makes it more robust. If some sensory cells are damaged, many others remain that can send nerve impulses to the brain.

It is not only the vowel sounds of human speech that lie in the low-frequency region: many of the sounds that go to make up music also lie here. Middle C on a piano, for example, has a frequency of 262 Hz.

These results may eventually be significant for people with severe hearing impairments. The most successful treatment currently available in such cases is a cochlear implant, in which electrodes are placed into the cochlea.

?The design of current cochlear implants is based on the assumption that each electrode should only give nerve stimulation at certain frequencies, in a way that tries to copy what was believed about the function of our hearing system. We suggest that changing the stimulation method at low frequencies will be more similar to the natural stimulation, and the hearing experience of the user should in this way be improved,? says Anders Fridberger.

The researchers now plan to examine how their new knowledge can be applied in practice. One of the projects they are investigating concerns new methods to stimulate the low-frequency parts of the cochlea.

These results come from experiments on the cochlea of guinea pigs, whose hearing in the low-frequency region is similar to that of humans. This work was funded by U.S. National Institutes of Health and Swedish Research Council.

We wish to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable material

New research throws doubt on old ideas of how hearing works

) [summary] => Journal Reference: George Burwood, Pierre Hakizimana, Alfred L Nuttall, Anders Fridberger. Best frequencies and temporal delays are similar across the low-frequency regions of the guinea pig cochlea. Science Advances, 2022; 8 (38) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq2773 We are social creatures. The sound of other people?s voices is important for us, and our hearing is directed at experiencing ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. George Burwood, Pierre Hakizimana, Alfred L Nuttall, Anders Fridberger. Best frequencies and temporal delays are similar across the low-frequency regions of the guinea pig cochlea. Science Advances, 2022; 8 (38) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq2773

We are social creatures. The sound of other people?s voices is important for us, and our hearing is directed at experiencing and distinguishing voices and human speech. Sound that arrives at the outer ear is carried by the ear drum to the spiral-shaped inner ear, also known as the cochlea. The sensory cells of hearing, outer and inner hair cells, are located in the cochlea. The sound waves cause the ?hairs? of the inner hair cells to bend, sending a signal through the nerves to the brain, which interprets the sound we hear.

For the past 100 years, we have believed that each sensory cell has its own ?optimal frequency? (a measure of the number of sound waves per second). The hair cell responds most strongly to this frequency. This idea means that a sensory cell with an optimal frequency of 1000 Hz would respond much less strongly to sounds with a frequency slightly lower or higher. It has also been assumed that all parts of the cochlea work in the same way. Now, however, , a research team has discovered that this is not the case for sensory cells that process sound with frequencies under 1000 Hz, considered to be low-frequency sound. The vowel sounds in human speech lie in this area.

?Our study shows that many cells in the inner ear react simultaneously to low-frequency sound. We believe that this makes it easier to experience low-frequency sounds than would otherwise be the case, since the brain receives information from many sensory cells at the same time,? says Anders Fridberger, professor in the Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences at Linköping University.

The scientists believe that this construction of our hearing system makes it more robust. If some sensory cells are damaged, many others remain that can send nerve impulses to the brain.

It is not only the vowel sounds of human speech that lie in the low-frequency region: many of the sounds that go to make up music also lie here. Middle C on a piano, for example, has a frequency of 262 Hz.

These results may eventually be significant for people with severe hearing impairments. The most successful treatment currently available in such cases is a cochlear implant, in which electrodes are placed into the cochlea.

?The design of current cochlear implants is based on the assumption that each electrode should only give nerve stimulation at certain frequencies, in a way that tries to copy what was believed about the function of our hearing system. We suggest that changing the stimulation method at low frequencies will be more similar to the natural stimulation, and the hearing experience of the user should in this way be improved,? says Anders Fridberger.

The researchers now plan to examine how their new knowledge can be applied in practice. One of the projects they are investigating concerns new methods to stimulate the low-frequency parts of the cochlea.

These results come from experiments on the cochlea of guinea pigs, whose hearing in the low-frequency region is similar to that of humans. This work was funded by U.S. National Institutes of Health and Swedish Research Council.

We wish to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable material

New research throws doubt on old ideas of how hearing works

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